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    Proteomics Service of Different Sample Types

      Common samples used in proteomics include cell samples, tissue samples, and body fluid samples. Cell samples include animal cells, plant cells, and microbial cells such as fungal cells and bacterial cells. Tissue samples include animal tissues and plant tissues. Body fluid samples include serum, plasma, and urine. In addition, samples used in proteomics research can also be derived from protein gel spots, gel strips, IP or Co-IP samples, paraffin-embedded samples, exosomes, subcellular fractions, and so on. In short, anything containing a proteome can be used as a sample in proteomics. However, different samples may require different preparation methods when used for proteomics research. Sample preparation mainly requires avoiding protein contamination and using reagents and solutions compatible with mass spectrometry for subsequent proteomics research.



      Figure 1. Sample Proteomics


      Services at MtoZ Biolabs

      1. Exosome Proteomics

      2. Cell Surface Proteomics

      3. Paraffin-embedded Sample Proteomics

      4. Subcellular Proteomics

      5. Plant Proteomics

      6. Serum Proteomics

      7. Cell Proteomics

      8. Membrane Proteomics

    • • Subcellular Proteomics Service

      The distribution and compartmentalization of proteins encoded by intracellular nucleic acids enable specific cellular functions. Therefore, analyzing the protein expression of their subcellular compartments is a practical and necessary functional assay for cellular proteomics.

    • • Paraffin Embedded Sample Proteomics Service

      For mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, animal samples typically include fresh tissues, blood, urine, and cells. Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, especially those used clinically, offer the advantages of well-documented medical histories, accurate diagnoses, and comprehensive clinical data. They can be stably stored at room temperature for extended periods, making them highly valuable for disease research.

    • • Plant Proteomics Service

      Plant Proteomics is a branch of proteomics aimed at studying the composition, structure, function, interactions, and regulatory mechanisms of plant proteins. Its research methods are similar to those in proteomics with core techniques like protein separation, purification, identification, functional annotation, interaction studies, and expression regulation studies.

    • • Exosome Proteomics Service

      Exosomes are one of the common extracellular vesicles (EVs) with diameters ranging from 30 to 150 nm. They primarily originate from the invagination of lysosomal particles into multivesicular bodies, which are released into the extracellular matrix, such as tissues and various biological fluids including serum/plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine (in vivo), after the outer membrane of the multivesicular body fuses with the cell membrane.

    • • Cell Surface Proteomics Service

      Cell surface proteins form a unique class of proteins, playing critical roles in managing cell function and facilitating communication between the cell and its environment by transporting metabolites, ions, and other solutes.

    • • Membrane Proteomics Service

      Membrane proteins are specialized proteins located on the cell membrane, playing a critical role in various biological processes such as material transport, signal transduction, energy conversion, and intercellular communication. Membrane proteomics studies the structure, function, interactions, and variations of membrane proteins across diverse biological processes.

    • • Cellular Proteomics Service

      Cellular proteomics is a scientific discipline that explores the expression, modification, interaction, and function of all proteins within cells. As a significant branch of proteomics, the development of cellular proteomics is closely linked to the progress of proteomics itself. In 1995, the term "proteomics" was introduced, marking the official start of proteomics research. With advancements in mass spectrometry technology, studies on intracellular proteins became increasingly sophisticated.

    • • Serum Proteomics Service

      Serum, the transparent yellow fluid obtained after blood coagulation and centrifugation, contains water, proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, and globulins), lipids, carbohydrates, and other substances. Proteins in serum contain valuable biological information, offering crucial insights into disease occurrence, progression, prediction, and diagnosis. Serum proteomics is a comprehensive study of the types, structures, and functions of proteins in serum.

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